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Feb 16

Principle and structure on cones

Cones used in solids control, we usually called hydrocyclone also. Usually including desander and desilter cones. They are combined with Cylinder and centrum. Please find following simple drawing for reference. We can find inlet room is on the cylinder part, the inner diameter is the cone size or model, there is an inlet at side, bow wave lead line is on the top center to be overflow hole. Lower part is centrum, and the angle is 15°~20°. Then there is drop in apex on the bottom

Under pressure, drilling fluid with solid particles will flow into cones, after high rotation, bigger and heavier particle will be threw to cone wall, then slide down till drop in apex and separated out. So, there will be 2 rotary gas flow in the cone, one is liquid contains quantity big solid flow down as cyclone, the other is smaller solid mixed with gas go up as bow wave.

Desander Cones

Desander Cones

Cones operation and adjustment

Nowadays, drilling fluids solids control cones are mainly balance cones. If the cone drop in apex is adjusted properly, input pure drilling fluid to it, the fluid will flow through totally from drop in apex, while drilling fluid contains solid flow through it, the solid will flow out of drop in apex. Every solid surface will stick liquid cover, at this time, the drop in apex is called balance point of the cone

When solid content is rather over permitted discharge capacity of cone solid separation, the drop in apex will discharged like a rope, there is no air flow in it then it will be easy blocked, many solid will turn back to overflow pipe then go back to drilling fluid

Furthermore, there will be another situation the solid go through the drop in apex as umbrella type. And in “umbrella” flow, the fine particle content will be higher than “rope” type. So the “rope” type will flow out less solids than “umbrella” type. However, that doesn’t mean “rope” flow is more effective. Contrarily, overflow fluid contains much fine particles, this will make drilling fluid more gravity and density with  drilling fluid back to drilling fluid system. Actually, it’s incorrect, if we think drop down flow have heavier density is better

To avoid rope type drop down flow, we must make input properly but not overloaded. We should make some adjustment on cones for ideal drop down flow. According adjustment operation on cone the hydrocyclone separator will have ideal performance even for whole solids control sytem

Solids Control Desilter

Solids Control Desilter

Cone types in solids control

Cones can be divided by the diameters, then including desander cones, desilter cones, as well as the micro cones

For desander cones, we usually treat 6”~12” cones as desander cones. And when the input pressure from centrifugal pump is 0.2MPa, every kind of cones will hold capacity: 20~120m3/h.

Usually, desander cones can separate out 95% drilling cuttings sized over 75 microns and 50% drilling cuttings bigger than 30 microns. To improve operation performance, when we choose model, we need 1.25times capacity as permitted drilling fluids capacityDesilter cones usually hold diameter as 4”~5”. When the centrifugal pump holding input pressure as 0.2MPa, its capacity should be not less than 10m3/h.

Usually, during operation, desilter hydrocyclone can separate out 95% drilling cuttings sized over 40 microns and 50% drilling cuttings larger than 15 microns. To select proper desilter, desilter capacity should be 1.25~1.5 times of drilling fluids flow

Micro cones hold diameter as 2”. When the input pressure is 0.2MPa, its capacity will be more than 5m3/h. The separation particle size is 7~25 microns

GN Solids Control spare cones

In GN, you’ll find desander cones sized 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”; desilter cones sized 4”, 5”; these are common type. And for 4” desilter cones can be similar with Derrick 4” desilter cone. They are interchangeable. Go to GN find economical 4” desilter cone and professional solution

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